吃掉幸福感的兩隻怪獸


錢多了,為何幸福沒有更多?因為有兩隻「住在人心裡面的怪獸」把幸福感吃掉了。該如何對付它們?

人人都想得到幸福,但是你有沒有過一種感覺,就是:在人生的每個階段,都有當時很想得到的事物。

進入了下個階段,這些事物到手了,但是自己卻沒有因此而感到格外幸福。

這種感覺就像是逆水行舟一般——不斷努力,幸福卻停在原地。

如果你曾有過這種感覺,那你所體驗到的正是幸福經濟學裡面有名的「伊斯特林悖論」(Easterlin paradox)。

這個悖論說,雖然在一個國家的某個時期,有錢人一般來說會比窮人快樂,但是隨著經濟成長,大家都變得更有錢了,社會的平均快樂程度卻不會因此而有所提升!

對於「伊斯特林悖論」的解釋是:有兩隻「住在人心裡面的怪獸」把幸福感吃掉了。

第一隻怪獸叫做「適應」。我們會很快適應自己新增加的所得或生活水準,並視其為理所當然,然後又將期望進一步墊高。

第二隻怪獸叫做「比較」。

根據東吳大學經濟所陶宏麟教授與邱詩詠同學發表在《發展經濟學評論》中的研究,比較心又可分為「向上比」、「跟同儕比」、與「向下比」。

向上比的時候,我們會覺得不足;跟同儕比的時候,我們容易覺得不如理想;向下比的時候,我們又擔心別人不斷追趕上來。
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